Crucifixion & Resurrection Chronology

   Just as when different writers of a new article focus on different things and some have points others don't, the same is true with the four Gospel writers. Interesting is when you parallel each account of the Crucifixion and Resurrection to see how things actually happened. You also find some things you never realized before or had missed. In placing these side by side, we can see how these events unfolded and list the verses from each writer. 

Crucifixion Chronology:

 

1.

Taken to the place of the skull, or Golgotha:

John 19:17

And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

 

2.

Placed between two criminals and the guards cast lots for His clothing:

Luke 23:33-34

33And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.

34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.

 

3.

Mocked Him, offered Him vinegar (wine mixed with gall), and then told He can’t even save Himself:

Luke 23:35-37

35 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.

36 And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,

37 And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.

 

4.

Sign above His head and written in Latin, Hebrew, and Greek:

John 19:19-20

19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

20 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

 

5.

Thief hurls insults:

Luke 23:39-42

39 And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.

40 But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?

41 And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.

42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.

 

6.

Jesus speaks the 2nd time:

Luke 23:43

And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in paradise.

 

7.

6th hour comes:

Mark 15:33

And when the sixth hour was come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.

 

8.

9th hour comes, Jesus speaks 3rd time, someone offers Him a second drink:

Mark 15:34-36

34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

35 And some of them that stood by, when they heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias.

36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone; let us see whether Elias will come to take him down.

* Note that Jesus did not say this because He thought the Father forsook Him. The Torah does not have chapters and verses like we have in our Bibles. To draw someone’s attention to a point in the Old Testament, one would recite part of the beginning passage. This is the beginning of what we know as Psalm 22. there are three fulfilled prophecies that took place at the Cross here, and Jesus is trying to draw their attention to the scripture so they could realize they are seeing it unfold before their eyes.

 

9.

The three women at the Cross, Jesus speaks the 4th time:

John 19:25-27

25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

26 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

27 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

 

10.

5th words of Jesus:

John 19:28

28 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

 

11.

Offered yet another sponge of vinegar, and 6th words (note that John here does not include point 12 that Luke does after this, but they are different writers):

John 19:29

29 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

30 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

 

12.

7th words of Christ & Jesus dies:

Luke 23:46

And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.

 

13.

Veil and rocks of the temple are torn, graves open, saints appear to many:

Matthew 27:51-53

51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;

52 And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose,

53 And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many.

 

14.

Centurion speaks:

Mark 15:39

And when the centurion, which stood over against him, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.

 

15.

Many witnesses saw this:

Luke 23:48-49

48 And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.

49 And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.

 

Resurrection Chronology 

1.

We see that the Crucifixion was not on the weekly Sabbath, but a high holy day, the annual Passover:

John 19:31

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

 

2.

Jesus prophesied He would be three days and nights, not just three days::

Matthew 12:40

For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

 

3.

This means, Jesus died on Wednesday, April 3, 30AD not Friday, and everyone was back home by Wednesday night. Wednesday 6pm to Thursday 6pm was the annual Sabbath (Passover). Thursday 6pm to Friday 6pm was the preparation day for the weekly Sabbath. Friday 6pm to Saturday 6pm was the weekly Sabbath. This is 3 days and 3 nights, thus Jesus rose sometime between dusk Saturday evening, April 6, 30AD and when Mary comes early Sunday morning, April 7, 30AD, when it was still dark:

Matthew 28:1

In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.

 

4.

The stone is rolled back and the guards faint:

Matthew 28:2-4

2 And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.

3 His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow:

4 And for fear of him the keepers did shake, and became as dead men.

 

5.

The women wonder how they will anoint Jesus and find the stone moved away:

Mark 16:3-4

3 And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?

4 And when they looked, they saw that the stone was rolled away: for it was very great.

 

6.

They enter the tomb to look for Jesus and two angels appear to tell them Jesus has risen:

Luke 24:3-5

3 And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus.

4 And it came to pass, as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments:

5 And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said unto them, Why seek ye the living among the dead?

 

7.

Instructed to go tell the other Disciples:

Mark 16:7

But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, as he said unto you.

 

8.

After being told, Peter & John run to the tomb with John arriving first, but he didn’t go in:

John 20:3-5

3 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre.

4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre.

5 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.

 

9.

Peter arrives and goes in and sees the burial garments. John goes in and sees and believes:

John 20:6-8

6 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie,

7 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself.

8 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed.

* An important note. It is Jewish custom that when at the table, if you get up and are coming back, you fold napkin a certain way to let them know not to clear you place, you are returning. Otherwise, you just place it down on the table at the plate. In this, Jesus folded the napking that covered His face to give them the message, He is coming again one day!

 

10.

The Disciples go home. Mary Magdalene stays back, goes in the tomb, and sees two angels:

John 20:11-13

11 But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre,

12 And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

13 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my LORD, and I know not where they have laid him.

 

11.

Mary goes out of the tomb, meets Jesus, and clings to Him:

John 20:14-18

14 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

15 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.

16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master.

17 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.

18 Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the LORD, and that he had spoken these things unto her.

 

12.

The guards reported what happened, the Jews come up with a lie to cover it up, they pay the guards off, and this lie continues today:

Matthew 28:11-15

11 Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done.

12 And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers,

13 Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept.

14 And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you.

15 So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day.

 

 

On the date of the death of Jesus:

   We can pin the exact date of Jesus’ Death based on this. In the time frame given, there is only one year this lines up, and it would give us April 3rd 30AD. Now, that will throw people off because since He was 33, people assume that it was 33AD. The Gregorian calendar was made in the 6th century by a monk named Dionysus who based 0AD on when he felt Jesus was born. This throws off the calendar a little over two years.

What we know:

1. Jesus was born while Herod the Great lived, who died in 1BC.

2. We know that there was a decree for the census of Caesar Augustus, during a time when Cyrenius (Latin, Quirinius) was governor of Syria (province included Judea, which was the kingdom of Herod the Great in 3BC.

3. Since the time of the taxation/census was in late August to mid-September, we know Jesus was born then, not in December

4. We know that after Herod heard of Jesus’ birth, he wanted children 2 and under killed, so this happened after Jesus’ birth, and before Herod’s death, meaning the Magi did not visit Jesus the day of His birth, but some time thereafter when He was older but under 2 years old.

 

What this means:

1. Since Herod died in 1BC, Jesus could not have been born in 0AD.

2. Since the census was in 3BC, we k now that Jesus could not have been born in 0AD.

3. Since we know the chronology of the crucifixion and resurrection, we know the only year the Passover was on a Wednesday night to Thursday night in the 30’s AD was April 3, 30AD. It would have been on a Monday night to Tuesday night in 31AD, Monday night to Tuesday night in 32AD, and Friday night to Saturday night in 33AD.

4. The 33AD mix-up is where tradition kicks in for “Good Friday” but ignores Scripture. Remember these verses:

John 19:31

The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. 

Matthew 12:40

For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

   Keeping a “Good Friday” does not allot for a “sabbath on a high day” nor will it allow Jesus to be truthful for 3 days and 3 nights, any way you try to slice it! Therefore, we can literally celebrate April 6th in the evening, or the 7th should you want to celebrate when the Disciples found the tomb empty, as the true resurrection of Jesus, each and every year.

 

In His Grace,

       Mike Harris Jr.

 

 

 

 

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